We thank John Campbell and Jonathan Zinman for his or her nice responses and suggestions. We thank Will Dobbie, Don Morgan, Brian Melzer, Neale Mahoney, Jeremy Tobacman, Jialan Wang, and discussants Adair Morse and Justin Wolfers because of their thoughtful advice. Helen Gardner, Alessandro Nava, and Jasjit Sansoye offered exemplary research help. We also thank colleagues in the Financial Conduct Authority while the University of Nottingham and seminar participants during the Bank of England, customer Financial Protection Bureau, Federal Reserve Bank of brand new York, NBER summertime Institute Law and Economics Meeting 2015, NBER summertime Institute domestic Finance Meeting 2016, Institute for Fiscal Studies, University of Cambridge, and University of Essex. This work had been supported by the Economic and personal analysis Council [grant figures
During the right time of writing, Benedict Guttman-Kenney and Stefan Hunt had been workers associated with the Financial Conduct Authority. John Gathergood ended up being an advisor that is academic the Financial Conduct Authority, which offered the info when it comes to paper, when it comes to duration February 2014 to might 2016, during that the greater part of work with this paper had been finished. The views in this paper must not be interpreted as showing the views associated with Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) or even the Competition and areas Authority (CMA)вЂ”they are solely the obligation for the writers. All mistakes or omissions will be the writersвЂ™ very own. Supplementary information can be seen in the writeup on Financial Studies internet site.